When the macromolecule in solution is higher than a certain concentration, phase separation can be formed under the conditions of suitable pH and temperature. After the formation of phase separation, the biological macromolecule has two forms, one is the low concentration state in solution, the other is the high concentration state that forms "liquid condensates". With the change of relevant conditions, the two forms can be transformed into each other, that is, phase separation is a highly dynamic process.
The occurrence of phase separation is highly dependent on the concentration, physical and chemical properties of biological macromolecules (such as protein, DNA, RNA, etc.) and the environment around them, such as temperature, pH, salt ion concentration, and the presence of other biological macromolecules. When physiologically relevant conditions change, the steady-state formed by phase separation can also be changed. In cells, this may be a decrease in pH caused by starvation, or an increase in the concentration of calcium ions or other high-valent cations when the cells are activated. For nonthermal organisms, temperature changes may also cause intracellular protein phase separation. In general, phase separation provides a new perspective for studying the structure and function of biomolecules, at present, more and more scientists have begun to study phase separation.
Figure 1. Protein phase separation (Alberti, S. 2017)
In order to help customers to detect and analyze phase separation phenomena, Creative Proteomics integrates a large number of advanced technologies to form a mature phase separation detection platform. Our technical personnel will make plans according to the customer's project needs, including but not limited to the following aspect.
By observing whether the protein under study can restore fluorescence in a short time, it can be judged whether the substance is exchanged frequently with the surrounding environment.
Customers can choose certain services according to project requirements, or contact us directly for consultation, and our expert team will provide you with a customized experimental program.
Creative Proteomics has focused on phase separation for more than ten years. We recruited experts in the field of phase separation and constantly updated our technology platform to provide customers with high-resolution, high-accuracy analysis services. We are honored to be your competent research assistant.