The interaction between protein and lipid is one of the foundations of various life phenomena in cells and is essential for advanced regulation in numerous cell signaling pathways. The interaction between lipids and various proteins may affect such things as inflammation, metabolism, blood pressure and other physiological processes. Abnormalities in this process can lead to many diseases, such as cancer, inflammation, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.
Lipids also interact with membrane proteins to have a profound impact on the structure and function of membrane proteins, so they are very important in drug development because more than 60% of drug targets are located on cell membranes. Therefore, mapping the complete network of lipid-protein interactions in cells may reveal new ways of signal transduction, unlock the pathogenesis of diseases, and develop new drugs. The research method of the interaction between the two and the mechanism of the interaction have always been one of the hot spots in biochemical research.
Fig 1. Protein-lipid interactions (Islam, Z.; et al. 2019)
Creative Proteomics offers an exceptional array of cutting-edge services dedicated to illuminating the fascinating world of protein-lipid interactions. Our suite of advanced techniques empowers researchers to dissect the intricate dialogues between proteins and lipids, providing crucial insights into fundamental cellular processes, signal transduction pathways, and disease mechanisms.
|Method||Principle and Description||Advantages|
|Surface Plasmon Resonance||Quantifies real-time binding kinetics and affinity between proteins and lipids on a sensor chip surface.||Offers label-free analysis, direct measurement of binding kinetics, and determination of binding constants.|
|Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC)||Measures heat changes during protein-lipid interactions, enabling determination of binding constants and stoichiometry.||Provides quantitative thermodynamic data, including binding affinity and enthalpy changes. Useful for characterizing weak and strong interactions.|
|Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)||Measures energy transfer between donor and acceptor fluorophores on proteins and lipids, indicating proximity and interactions.||Provides real-time monitoring of interactions, sensitive to distance changes.|
|Fluorescence Spectroscopy||Monitors changes in protein fluorescence upon lipid binding, using intrinsic fluorescence or extrinsic probes.||Offers real-time monitoring, sensitive detection, and ability to study conformational changes upon lipid interaction.|
|Circular Dichroism (CD)||Studies changes in protein secondary structure upon lipid binding, providing insights into conformational changes.||Non-destructive method, sensitive to structural alterations, and can be used to study lipid-induced conformational changes.|
|Microscale Thermophoresis||Measures thermophoretic changes resulting from protein-lipid interactions, providing quantitative binding data.||Requires minimal sample volume, provides label-free detection, and allows determination of binding affinities and stoichiometries.|
|X-ray Crystallography and NMR||Utilizes high-resolution structural techniques to reveal atomic-level details of protein-lipid complexes.||Offers insights into 3D structures, binding modes, and conformational changes. Facilitates drug discovery targeting lipid-binding sites.|
|Mass Spectrometry||Analyzes protein-lipid interactions by detecting mass changes upon complex formation.||Provides information on binding stoichiometry, lipid specificity, and structural insights. Can be used with different lipid types and membrane mimetics.|
|Liposome Co-Precipitation||Mimics cellular membrane environments by investigating protein-lipid interactions through co-precipitation with liposomes.||Provides insights into lipid-binding specificity and affinity. Enables study of interactions under physiologically relevant conditions.|
|Lipid Overlay Assay||Utilizes lipid membranes immobilized on a solid support to probe protein-lipid interactions, enabling detection of binding events.||Provides qualitative assessment of protein-lipid interactions. Can be adapted to various lipid types and interaction conditions.|
|Lipid Nanodiscs||Stabilizes membrane proteins in nanoscale lipid bilayers, facilitating study of their interactions with proteins and lipids.||Maintains native-like lipid environment, allows study of membrane protein-lipid interactions.|
|Microfluidic Assays||Utilizes microfluidic devices to create controlled lipid environments for studying protein-lipid interactions.||Precise control over lipid compositions and gradients, suitable for dynamic studies.|
|Molecular Dynamics (MDs)||Simulates the behavior of protein-lipid complexes over time, providing insights into dynamic interactions.||Offers a computational approach to understanding binding mechanisms and dynamics.|
Deciphering Cell Signaling: Uncover how lipids modulate cell signaling pathways, shedding light on fundamental cellular events like proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis.
Understanding Membrane Proteins: Gain insights into how protein-lipid interactions influence the stability, conformation, and activity of membrane proteins critical for cellular functions.
Probing Neurodegenerative Diseases: Investigate disruptions in protein-lipid interactions linked to neurodegenerative diseases, advancing our understanding of their underlying mechanisms.
Navigating Cancer Biology: Explore altered lipid metabolism and protein-lipid interactions in cancer, revealing potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
Innovating Drug Development: Identify potential drug candidates targeting protein-lipid interactions and elucidate their mechanisms of action.
Unraveling Infectious Diseases: Investigate how pathogens exploit host cell lipid pathways, guiding the development of antiviral and antibacterial strategies.
Insights into Metabolic Disorders: Understand lipid-mediated regulation in metabolic disorders, opening avenues for therapeutic interventions.
Unveiling Cellular Trafficking: Illuminate the molecular details of vesicular trafficking and membrane fusion events, enhancing our knowledge of intracellular transport.
Guiding Structural Biology: Enhance structural models and rational drug design through precise characterization of protein-lipid binding interfaces.
Probing Enzyme Function: Gain insights into lipid-mediated enzyme activity regulation, contributing to our understanding of metabolic pathways.