GST Pull Down Service
The GST pull-down assay is a biochemical technique used to study protein-protein interactions. The assay is based on the affinity of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) protein for glutathione. In this assay, a GST fusion protein is immobilized on a glutathione agarose matrix. The matrix is then incubated with a cell lysate or purified proteins, allowing the GST fusion protein to bind to its interacting partner(s). After washing away non-specific binding proteins, the interacting partners can be identified by Western blot or mass spectrometry.
Performing a GST pull-down experiment involves several steps. First, a GST fusion protein is expressed and purified. Then, the GST fusion protein is immobilized on a glutathione agarose matrix. The matrix is washed to remove any unbound protein and then incubated with a cell lysate or purified proteins. After washing, the interacting partner(s) are eluted and analyzed by Western blot or mass spectrometry.
In vitro GST pull-down assay (Bernhard et al., 2005).
The GST pull-down assay is used to identify protein-protein interactions, as well as to study the binding affinity and specificity of protein interactions. It can also be used to identify novel protein-protein interactions, study the effect of post-translational modifications on protein interactions, and identify the binding domains of proteins.
The GST protein is commonly used as a fusion partner in the GST pull-down assay due to its high affinity for glutathione. The GST protein is also highly stable and soluble, making it an ideal fusion partner. The GST protein acts as a tag, allowing the protein of interest to be immobilized on the glutathione agarose matrix.
To ensure the specificity of the GST pull-down test, three controls should be included: a negative control, a positive control and a specific control.
Negative control: Ensures that the identified interacting partner is not a non-specific binding protein. Negative controls can be performed by incubating the substrate with lysates or purified proteins that do not interact with the GST fusion protein.
Positive control: ensures that the assay is performed properly. Positive controls can be performed by using a known interaction partner for the GST fusion protein.
Specific control: Ensure that the interaction partner identified is specific to the GST fusion protein and not to other proteins in the lysate. The specificity control can be performed by using mutant GST fusion proteins that do not bind to the interaction partner.
Both GST pull-down and immunoprecipitation methods are used to study protein-protein interactions. However, there are some differences between these two techniques.
Immunoprecipitation involves the use of an antibody to capture specific proteins or complexes from the lysate. The antibody is immobilized on a solid support and then incubated with the lysate. Proteins or complexes of interest are captured by the antibody and can be analyzed by Western blot or mass spectrometry.
GST pull-down assays use GST proteins as fusion partners and the protein of interest is immobilized on a solid support. The interacting partners are then captured by the immobilized protein and can be analyzed by Western blot or mass spectrometry.
One advantage of the GST pull-down assay is that it allows identification of the interacting partner without the need for a specific antibody. However, the GST pull-down assay may not be suitable for studying interactions involving membrane proteins or proteins that are difficult to purify.