Dual Luciferase Reporter Gene Assay Service
The dual luciferase reporter gene assay is an exceedingly advanced technique that is implemented to scrutinize the activity of regulatory sequences or signaling pathways within living cells. This sophisticated assay incorporates the use of two distinct luciferases, namely, the firefly luciferase (Fluc) and the Renilla luciferase (Rluc), which can be distinguished based on their respective spectral properties. It is worthwhile to note that Fluc releases light at a wavelength of 560 nm, whereas Rluc generates light at 480 nm. This combination of two luciferases is employed to reflect on the activity of diverse regulatory sequences in a single experiment, hence providing a comprehensive analysis.
The Fluc reporter gene is typically utilized as a test gene in this assay, while Rluc serves as an internal control to normalize for variations in transfection efficiency, cell number, and protein degradation. The dual luciferase reporter gene assay system has revolutionized the measurement of gene expression changes with its high sensitivity and quantitative capability.
The fundamental basis of the system rests on the utilization of two distinct plasmids, with each plasmid containing a reporter gene and a constitutively expressed internal control gene. The test gene is inserted upstream of the Fluc gene, whereas the internal control gene is located upstream of the Rluc gene. These plasmids are then co-transfected into the cells of interest, and the activity of the reporter genes is measured using a luminometer.
Finally, the ratio of Fluc to Rluc activity is calculated to normalize for variations in transfection efficiency and cell number. In conclusion, the dual luciferase reporter gene assay system provides a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of regulatory sequences and signaling pathways that would be difficult to achieve through conventional methods.
Schematic representation of the workflow: Promoter strengths in the transient expression context were quantified using dual luciferase assay and flow cytometry analysis (Toktay et al., 2022).
The analysis of the dual luciferase reporter gene assay involves several steps.
Characterization of H3H-Lux and LuxAB-Fre luciferase systems in TXTL (Sato et al., 2022).
The dual luciferase reporter gene assay has several advantages over other methods of measuring gene expression changes. First, the assay is highly sensitive, enabling the detection of even small changes in gene expression. Second, the assay is quantitative, providing accurate and reproducible measurements of gene expression changes. Third, the use of an internal control gene minimizes the effects of experimental variability on the results, making the assay more reliable. Fourth, the assay is easy to perform and can be adapted to a wide range of experimental conditions.
Dual luciferase assay and Dual Glo assay both are two commonly used assays for measuring gene expression changes. Dual luciferase assay uses firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase as reporter genes, while Dual Glo assay uses Gaussia luciferase and Renilla luciferase as reporter genes. Both assays use an internal control gene to normalize for variations in transfection efficiency, cell number, and protein degradation.
The main difference between Dual luciferase assay and Dual Glo assay is in the properties of the reporter genes. Firefly luciferase emits light at 560 nm, while Gaussia luciferase emits light at 485 nm. This difference in spectral properties can affect the sensitivity and accuracy of the assay in certain experimental conditions. In general, Dual luciferase assay is more sensitive and reliable than Dual Glo assay for measuring gene expression changes in mammalian cells.
Quantitative PCR (qPCR) can also used to measure gene expression changes. qPCR measures the abundance of mRNA transcripts using reverse transcription and PCR amplification. In contrast, luciferase reporter assay measures the activity of a reporter gene using a luminometer.
The main difference between qPCR and luciferase reporter assay is in the type of information provided. qPCR provides information on the abundance of mRNA transcripts, while luciferase reporter assay provides information on the activity of a specific regulatory sequence or signaling pathway. qPCR is often used to measure changes in gene expression at the transcriptional level, while luciferase reporter assay is used to measure changes in gene expression at the post-transcriptional level.